It is hard to know that is Pop Art product of popular culture or did it contribute its becoming widespread all around the world. But it is obvious that popular culture that created many complicated politic, social, economic issues began in 1945s and maintains effects forcibly in modern times and today. It was evolved by America using many cultural weapons and marketed to world. Therefore what was the popular culture and how did occur? We have to know American reconstruction term and Post – World War II term in terms of understanding a rising of new culture. I will try to explain the reformation in social and politic area in the time of popular art and culture rising universally.
America first past the post after 1939 economic crises and World War II took the winner flag from Europe not only for politic issues but also in cultural and artistic field. This effect demonstrated itself in a huge area beginning hamburger and blue jean, ending financial and politic area. Also this situation caused the disappearing of “Paris Superiority in Art” that existed for decades. Europe was struggling with complicated politic chaos and internal affairs and it was not exactly free. The art needed to free thinking could no more develop in Europe so many educated and artists began to find a way of surviving. That was an opportunity for America. Also reviewers were feeling under pressure with innovative tradition of Paris in Europe, they found a way of distant view.
After 1960s everything was changing fast as a generation realizes the evolution. Even this disturbing speed was creating “generation gap” in modern times. The developing of technological opportunities was triggering this period. People interrogating the moral sagacity of managers via mass circulation media began to discover their subconscious thanks to Freud. This term was accepted as returning to Renaissance and discovering the humanism again. But this term was really different from Renaissance. Firstly the nobility and aristocracy were accepted as effective roles in Renaissance, but now people want to highlight their freedom and reactions for any questions. On the other hand the aim of modernity to lean everything on logical principles and to make everything commodizate. One Scene related this from “modern times” is very effective. Charlie Chaplin was a worker in a factory and while he was working saw an acquaintance. He abandoned his place for saying “hello” but when he done this the alarms and signals began to ring and to throw out light. This means that in modern times there is nowhere for emotional affinity.
There was the class distinction in basis of modernity and popular culture because existing of classes is the one of the most parts of Capitalism. The existence of “gaining much” and “gaining low” was elementary of Capitalism. This caused activist movements in politic and social area. People didn’t want to listen Webern, Schoenberg, they wanted to listen Philipp Glass, Steve Reich even Beatles. In this way not only did they display their political reactions but also bearded to leading of spiritual authority and moral of strait laced. The same changing and reformations were also seen in science and social life. It was unacceptable that to apply one principle or rule belonged to positive science for each part of science. Anyhow scientists regarded to mention one more disciplines like social and positive even multidiscipline which should distinguish according to its field. The desire of innovation showed itself for any notion. The groups were despoiled like women, gays, disables, aged began to seek for their rights that should have been given for many years. Old and classical things were not acceptable. Innovation adopted under obligatory circumstances should present every point of earth as modernism thanks to use of popular culture and globalization arguments. At the same time astonishing, bright, glamorous and enjoyable things could detain the major groups and banish them from rebelliousness. And this new political and cultural plan belonged to America.
America was young, lusty and more powerful after being winner of war periods. The capitalism required to expand and to find new marketplaces. But the wars were wearing, burdensome and risky to more develop and to expand. Because of these reasons America had to find new ways to expansion. After that the things like cars, eating habits, genre of music, wearing style were belonged to America began to idealize and present as modern and popular. America used all facilities, mass circulation media and technology to realize this ideal and cultural imperialism. Alienating was another gun to destroy folkloric and local traditions. Firstly everything presented should be enjoyable, cumulative and have narcotic effect on people like Goethe’s perfect dialogs in “Faust”. In the beginning of the book, a dialog about popularity greets. The manager of theatre says “I want to people like me very much. Because they live and make live.” And poet answers “please don’t mention about multi-faceted crew that make my inspiration destroy” and manager gives poet an advice “Show them many events. Astonish them. In this way you can be precious man. If you present them many things each people can find an appropriate thing for him.” This passage also describes the popular culture’s nature; understandable, cheap, attainable. And art was more impressed area in this period.
Artists began to react using subconscious and abstract expressionism. They wanted to highlight realism and real face of people. Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper John started the new Pop Art trend using daily objects and fancies of American flag. Pop Art occurred after 1950s in consumer culture of America. Developed economic structure abolished frugality and created consumer society. This new trend came out against to intellectuals advocated that understanding of art requires being educated. They aimed to present artistic works using visual effects with mass circulation media, advertisements and movies. Richard Hamilton first painter of this trend was asking a question with his work was named as “Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing?” Hamilton emphasized that Pop Art should target big groups especially young people. While British man Richard Hamilton was describing Pop Art as baffling and temporary, American artists thought that it is banal. Claes Oldenburg constructed “Gigantic Hamburger and Cornet” using unworthy materials. He used his workshop and parks as an exhibition hall. His art was for everyone not distinguishing educated or uneducated. He criticized the new consumer society constructing huge things with unworthy materials. Another important name of Pop Art was Andy Warhol. Advertisement designer, director and painter Andy Warhol painted famous faces like Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor and interesting subjects like car accident or electrical chair. He criticized the presenting of same things in different package again and again with his most famous painting “Marilyn Monroes”. He handled insensitivity problem in society painting car accidents and electrical chairs. Andy Warhol said this describing his art “I painted such these things because I want to be a machine. I do everything like a machine because I just want it. When everything began to resemble each other, a terrible scene appears. In the future everybody can be famous in fifteen minutes. If you want to something about me, look at my pictures’ surface and my face. Here I am, there is nothing its background.”
Pop Art became an international characteristic like consumer society in both sides of Atlantic. I was neither a new idiom and fashion nor create new topics. Pop Art just helped to look the same situations and notions from different point of view. Mass circulation media haven’t been used like that until the rising of Pop Art. Because both of them discoursed same crews using same methods. Also there was a big common direction between pop music and Pop Art. Pop music occurred in 1960s astonishing and influencing people universally. It was not a surprise that many British and American artists used pop music singers as model and subject. They used complicated style in their painting and sculptures consciously because they wanted to demonstrate both their talent and effect all people. The products of pop art didn’t have capacity limited with paintings or sculpture. The new styles created by Pop Art used in many things like tin cans, billboards, fashion which can commercialize globally. It was not required to be westerner influenced by popular culture. Also Turkey effected this new movement socially and culturally especially in the end of 1960s and at the beginning of 1970s.
Turkey entered the usurpation term in the end of 1960s. This also gave important signals socially. It is not right to say that popular culture took effecting role in Turkey with America simultaneously. But it began to be used after painful politic chaos terms to banish people from politic area to normalize social life. It was seemed to successful at first sight but it became uncontrolled by government. People became insensitive for any event. This being insensitive term continued up until now. It is controversial that it is good or bad but that is certain this period masked and made up something which should to be understood by people. The intellectual effects of popular culture were catastrophic. For example the publishing of Umberto Eco’s book named “The Name of Rose” which includes theologic and secular debates in Turkey. It could be very beneficial in Turkey which debates Islamism and secularism if it’s content could be understood correctly. But “The Name of Rose” and other books like that were sacrificed by popular culture. It was perceived like Sherlock Holmes detective story and people just took of popular part of it.
Turkey was affected this period especially with television and marketing. In this time Turkey was watching many TV series belonged to America and effected by them not only economically but also politically. In one TV series the argument between manager of FBI Hoover and President Kennedy was shown and this was humiliating the notion of democracy. Also feeling of abundance, consuming which used by TV shows and series aimed to impel people to consume endlessly.
There are global trends affected people in every period of history. But none of them is liked and used as popular culture. Popular culture is a part of an economic policy and its target to capture everyone not differentiating child, old, women or men. Because of this it is considered to be acceptable by countries and cultures. This is the main content of this trend “If we have technology, we don’t have to waste our time to create valuable things and to understand everything. Also we can consume everything easily because it isn’t hard to gain it again. We can’t have even original things we have to find it’s similar. How many things we have they have low value as.”
We can’t know there will occur a new trend will bring values back. But also there are many examples of arising from ashes in history. Dark ages corrupted higher civilization antic Greece and Roma. But Renaissance recovered forgotten values back and created new civilization. We don’t predict what will time bring us but like Karl Max said “The improvement land of human is time.”