Turkey’s agenda since 1950, bringing the Cyprus problem, Turkey’s foreign policy since then has become one of the issues that affect the most. With the end of the Second World War spread to the world anti-colonial movements in Cyprus showed the effect. Since 1950, Greek Cypriots began to work on the island with Greece. However, there weren’t only Greeks in Cyprus. Turks made up one-fifth of the island’s population. The Turks did not support to connect to the island of Cyprus to Greece. The Cyprus problem is starting to come to Turkey’s agenda since the 1950’s, originally the Turkish – Greek friendship is tried to be kept under the back seat. To understand how the shape of the Cyprus problem, which occurred after the Second World War world layout needs to know. With the end of the Second World War world, the democratic bloc and the Communist bloc is divided into two groups.
After the Second World War, Turkey and Greece have acted together against the communist bloc. Both countries have been allies of the United States of America. Greece and Turkey became a NATO member in 1952. Therefore, the cold war period, Greece and Turkey have become economically and militarily dependent on the United States of America. The United States of America have been effected each country’s domestic and foreign policies. United States of America, the two countries were able to intervene in Cyprus policy.
The main problem in Cyprus is possible to examine the three periods.
1- 1950 to 1964 period
2 – 1964 to 1974 period
3 – 1974 to 1980 period
1 – 1950 to 1964 period
Greek Cypriots have begun terrorist attacks on the island since 1950. This action was aimed at Britain. The aim of Cyprus to end British sovereignty to unite the island with Greece. However, only Greeks dind’t lived in Cyprus. Turks living on the island. Great Britain, was opposed to this situation, citing the island’sunification with Greece. In fact, the United Kingdom thought that only their own strategic interests. Britain was trying to bring Turkey into the sides in the Cyprus issue. London Conference, Turkey and United Kingdom opposed to connect to the island to Greece in 1955. Thus, the problem of Cyprus between Greece and Britain ceased to be a problem. Cyprus has become a problem between Turkey and Greece.
In the year 1959, in Cyprus began to increase tensions between Turks and Greeks. This situation affects the relations between Turkey and Greece is a member of NATO. The two countries came from the brink of war from time to time. But in the world are experiencing the cold war, the two Nato members to come in this way the brink of war the United States, leader of the Western bloc, was disturbed. In such a case, Turkey and Greece, among them an agreement to solve the Cyprus problem, important for the United States’ s policies. Because of a possible Turkish – Greek war will serve the interests of the Soviet Union. With pressure from the United States and other NATO members in 1959 between Turkey and Greece arranged a conference in London. 11 February 1959 between the foreign ministers of Turkey andGreece signed agreements with London and Zürh laid the foundations of an independent Republic of Cyprus. The Turks and the Greeks, the newly established Republic of Cyprus became the founding party of two. Unification of the island with Greece or Turkey is prohibited.
In addition these agreements, Turkey has the right of guarantee on the island. Thus, with the American intervention in the independent Republic of Cyprus have established an agreement between Turkey and Greece. United States of America, worked to solve the Cyprus problem within NATO, the problem didn’t want to go to international organizations such as the United Nations. Because the United Nations was a member of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries. Because the United Nations was a member of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries. If the issue comes to the United Nations, the Soviet Union was likely to intervene in the issue. United States of America wanted to keep the issue within NATO, didin’t want the issue taken to the United Nations.
The Cyprus problem, solved by establishing an independent Republic of Cyprus, the United States was satisfied. However; actually solved the problem of Cyprus. Cyprus after 1960, affecting the relations between Turkey and America will become one of the main factors.
The establishment of an independent Republic of Cyprus, Turks and Greeks living on the island has not satisfied. Because the Greeks believed the island should be unification with Greece. The Turks thought that the island should be two separate states. Greek Cypriots, the Turks on the island of terror and intimidation to pressure, devised to send the Turks from the island. Greek main objectives is to connect Cyprus to Greece. Enosis would come this way. Therefore, the Greeks, the Turks have begun to acts of terror since 1963. İn Bloody Christmas, (Kanlı Noel) the Greeks, Turks attacked their regions. Also in Cyprus, a Turkish officer in charge of his wife and children were killed by the Greeks. Turkey has shown great response to this crime, the Turkish war planes bombed Cyprus in 1964. The same year, Parliament gave the government the authority to send troops to Cyprus.
The Turkish government has started preparations to send troops to Cyprus. Turkey’s Prime Minister İsmet İnönü had given notice of its decision to the United States. Because of the Turkish Army to intervene in Cyprus does not have the military hardware.
United States of America to make military intervention against Turkey in Cyprus. Because the Greek – Turkish war could cause. In order to prevent Turkey from sending troops to Cyprus, President Johnson sent a letter to Prime Minister İsmet İnönü. Johnson Letter a negative sense, affecting the first event in Turkish-American relations.
Johnson stated that Turkey use its American weapons in this letter. Moreover, if Turkey sends troops to Cyprus, Turkey to attack the Soviet Union in this case, Nato will not help Turkey. At the end of this letter, Turkey did not intervene militarily in Cyprus. Johnson letter adversely affected the Turkish-American relations. Turkey shaken confidence in the United States. Turkey has started to establish good relations with the Soviet Union since 1964. Since the 1960s Turkey’s share of this letter are increasingly anti-American.
As a result of, America during this period, the Turkish – Greek tried to prevent war. The first goal was to stop communism in America. America wanted to resolve the Cyprus issue within NATO. America has supported the solution of an independent Cyprus. Independent Republic of Cyprus was established in 1960. However, events did not go as America wants. Disturbed the peace and the peace in Cyprus, Greek Cypriot attacks against the Turks. Therefore, Turkey’s military intervention in the island wanted to make. This intervention has prevented by the United States of America.
2 – 1964 to 1974 period
This is the first crisis over the 1967 crisis. 7 years latter Cyprus President Makarios coup has organized by Greece Military junta in 1974.
Then, Turkey intervened in Cyprus as a guarantor country.
1967 until 1964, many international conferences in order to find a solution to the Cyprus problem were collected. In addition, many interviews took place between Turkey and Greece. But none of this conference did not provide the ultimate solution to the Cyprus problem.
When we came to 1967, the unfinished problems in Cyprus, on the contrary began to increase. When we came to 1967, the unfinished problems in Cyprus, on the contrary began to increase. 15 november 1967 in the Greek soldiers entered the village of Bogazici in order to perform the control activity. Control against the Turks was to leave the village on the conflict. Greeks have occupied this village. Also Gecitkale village was occupied by the Greeks. In the period between 1964 and 1967 20000 greek soldries went to Cyprus. At that time, Turkey has begun preparations for military intervention in Cyprus. Turkey and Greece came to the brink of a new war after 3 years. When the possibility of a war between Turkey and Greece, United States of America has been engaged again. However, in a different way this time. American foreign affairs deputy minister Vance went to Ankara. Vance has been a mediator between Turkish and Greek sides. He has worked in Turkey over Cyprus to accept requests to Greece.
As a result, Turkey’s demands were accepted by Greece. Twenty thousand Greek soldiers were returned to Greece in Cyprus. The crisis of 1967 also prevented the intervention of America to the island of Turkey. But this time is used more diplomatic way. Twenty thousand Greek soldiers to return back to Greece, 7 years after the military intervention of Turkey in Cyprus will have facilitated work of the Turkish Army. Another result of this crisis, the Turkish Army is insufficient understanding of the military. For this reason, Turkey bought extraction vessel, transport aircraft, helicopter and parachute. Thus, the military preparations have been completed.
In the period between 1967 and 1974, the events between Turks and Greeks seem to be finished. Greece has been a military coup in 1967. The Greek king was exiled. Military junta came to power. Military junta wanted to to connect Cyprus with Greece.
Anti-Americanism has started to rise in Turkey from 1967 to 1974. In 1968, the Sixth Fleet visited to Istanbul. But the American soldiers thrown into the sea by students. In 1969, the American Ambassador’s car was burned by the students in METU. As you can see, America’s Cyprus policy has led to the reaction of Turkish society.
When we came to 1974 Cyprus as a boiling cauldron. The tensions between the two communities continue to the year 1974. 15 July 1974, Cyprus of President Makarios was organized a coup by the Greek junta. Makarios went to London. Then, Samson has become the new president of Cyprus. Thus, the way was opened to the connection of Cyprus with Greece. Turkey reacted Greek coup in Cyprus. Turkey has military intervened in Cyprus on July 20, 1974. America could not intervene Turkey to send troops to Cyprus. But Turkey declared a cease-fire halted a military campaign in 22 July 1974. Greece and Turkey came together in Geneva to pressure from the United States. But, a deal can be reported at this conference, the second Operation has begun by Turkey on August 15, 1974. As a result of this Operation, Turkey has taken Cyprus control of thirty percent. United States of America tried to prevent a possible Greek – Turkish war. The military intervention of Turkey in Cyprus, has led to the collapse of the military junta in Greece.
As a result, the military intervention of Turkey in Cyprus wasn’t blocked by the United States. The main purpose for the United States, Nato for the security of the Greek – Turkish war to prevent.
3 – 1974 to 1980 period
Turkey’s military intervention in Cyprus, the Greek Cypriots living in the United States of America has attracted a large response. Greek Lobby with the pressure of America, Turkey has imposed embargo. This situation has led to deterioration of Turkish-American relations. U.S. Senate to approve the decision on the embargo in 1975, Turkey announced that the American military bases be shut down. The Turkish government in 1975, U.S. – Turkey defense and cooperation agreement annulled. In addition, the intense reaction against America was formed in Turkish society. Before lifting the arms embargo applied to Turkey, United States of America, wanted to secure its military bases in Turkey. For this reason, United States of America wanted to make with Turkey a new agreement the defense and economic cooperation. As a result, the American embargo has been removed in 1978.
In the same period, has been the revolution in Iran, America’s major allies toppled the Shah. In 1979 Islamic regime was established in İran. Another important development in the region is that the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. These two developments have increased the strategic importance of Turkey and Greece. America has become important for these two countries to cooperate. Greece is divided from Nato in 1974. Greece again be a member of Nato, was important for the United States. A member of Nato Greece again, Turkey had to approve. As a result of pressure from the United States of America, Turkey has confirmed Greece a member of NATO in 1980. America is important for the control of the Soviet Union.
As a result, the period between 1950 and 1980, Cyprus is one of the important events that affect Turkish-American relations. The purpose of the United States to prevent the emergence of war between Turkey and Greece. Cold war world, America is important for preventing the spread of the Soviet Union. Cyprus is not important for America. The important thing is that in cooperation with Turkey and Greece. Cyprus policy of the United States of America, a deep disappointment for Turkey. Because the United States of America, didn’t give support to Turkey over Cyprus. In this case, the Turkish – U.S. relations negatively affected from time to time between the two countries has led to crises.
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